Article 2 and Article 20 offer opportunities to limit backstops. Article 2, paragraph 2 of the protocol states that this is a temporary measure, while the United Kingdom identifies and develops a technology satisfactory to both parties, which carries out customs, excise, plant health and other border controls between the UK and the EU without apparent border infrastructure. The provisions must be in line with Section 10 of the European Union Withdrawal Act (Withdrawal Act) 2018 on the continuation of North-South cooperation and the prevention of new border agreements. The full advice was published later, showing that the terms of the backstop could mean that the UK could face “long and repeated rounds of negotiations.”  In March 2019, further notices were issued that the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law could be used if it turned out that the backstop had a “socially destabilizing effect on Northern Ireland”.  They feared that the “backstop” would be used to permanently strangle the UK in the EU customs union and prevent the country from concluding its own trade agreements. If this had been necessary, the backstop would have kept the whole of the UK in close trade relations with the EU, which would have eliminated the need for controls along the Irish border. The Republic of Ireland is the second highest gross domestic product per capita in the EU after Luxembourg, thanks to a favourable corporate tax system and membership of the European single market.  About 85% of Ireland`s freight exports worldwide are from ports in the UK, about half of which are destined for the UK, while half continue to the EU via Dover and Calais.  The UK`s use as a “land bridge” is rapid (it takes 10.5 hours for the Dublin-Holyhead-Dover-Calais route), but could be compromised by customs checks in Wales and Calais in a Brexit without agreement. Indeed, in the absence of trade agreements, the trade relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU (including the Republic) would amount to membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
They stipulate that the same tariffs and tariffs must be applied indiscriminately among all WTO members (the most favoured nation`s criterion), unless some members have a trade agreement.  This principle would also apply to trade across land borders in Ireland in the absence of a trade agreement. On 14 November 2018, after a five-hour cabinet meeting, Prime Minister May announced that her cabinet had approved a draft withdrawal agreement with the EU.    On the same day, the Government issued an opinion on the agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and stated that negotiations on future relations between the United Kingdom and the EU were under way and that the (binding) withdrawal agreement would not be signed without a (non-binding) political declaration on future relations. , “on the basis that nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.”  In July 2019, Theresa May resigned and Boris Johnson became Prime Minister, boris Johnson saying he wanted to replace the Irish backstop as part of the withdrawal agreement.  On 19 August, in a letter to the President of the European Council, the Prime Minister declared that the agreement was “undemocratic and incompatible with the sovereignty of the United Kingdom”.  He stressed that this was “not compatible with the UK`s desired end goal” for its relations with the EU.